Chemistry class 10 and 12 chapter revision

. Nitrogen is more electro-negative than phosphorous and hence attracts electron more towards itself from bond pair with hydrogen, as compared to attraction of electrons by phosphorous in PH,. The electrons in NH, come closer to nitrogen and due to this electrons tries to repel each other. This leads to increase in bond angles of NH

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2. Nitrogen is found to be very less reactive, because it contains triple covalent bond which is very strong and in MOT their bond order is found to be 3.

1 PCI, has trigonalbipyramidal structure in which two bonds are found to be larger and weaker than other bond. Thus cleavage of two bonds takes place on heating. PCI, PCI,+Cl

4. Contact process is process of preparation of sulphuric acid in which either Pr or VO, can be used as a catalyst but in Ostwald process (process for manufacture of nitric acid) we can use Pt as a catalyst.

5. In ammonia N is more electronegative than H and therefore due to electronic repulsion it act as a electron pair donor and act as a good ligand.

Nitrogen has 3 unpaired electron in their valence shell and form 3 covalent bond. Thus N form NCI,. Due to absence of d-orbital excitation of N does not takes place and therefore N does not form NCI, but excitation of P takes place due to presence of d-orbital and P form PCI,

FCB Fand Ar are the member of halogen family. Since the size of I is maximum cleavage of easily and therefore HI is strongest reducing agent.

Alumina is a bad conductor of electricity. Thus small quantity of HI takes place there and increases ayolite (Na, AIF) is added which decreases the the conductivity of alumina.

Both Fand Cl contains 7 valence electron but size of F is much smaller than CI due absence of 3rd orbit. Thus attachment of 6 F in Sis possible but attachment of 6C does electric repulsion and large size.

not takes place due to & HCL is stronger acid than HF. This is because the bond enthalpy of HCI bond is lower than that of HF bond. Group-VIIA, or Group 17.

This is due to polarising power. Charge of both F and Cl are same but F has very small radius in comparision with chlorine, Hence due to electronic repulsion Ea value of F is smaller than Cl.

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The acidic strength of HX can be determined on the basis of Born -Haber cycle. Since the size of I is very large with respect to F and therefore dissociation of HI takes place more easily than HF and hence the acidic strength of Hl is much more than HF.

Sea divers (Schuba divers) must cope with high concentrations of dissolved gases while breathing air at high pressure underwater. Increased pressure increases the solubility of atmospheric gases in blood. When the divers come towards surface, the pressure gradually decreases. This releases the dissolved gases and leads to the formation of bubbles of nitrogen in the blood. This blocks capillaries and creates a medical condition known as bends, which are painful and dangerous to life. To avoid bends, as well as, the toxic effects of high concentrations of nitrogen in the blood, the tanks used by scuba divers are filled with air diluted with helium (11.7% helium, 56.2% nitrogen and 32.1% oxygen)

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